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Journal Editing

Biber, D. & Gray, B. (2016). Grammatical complexity in academic English: Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge University Press. Gray, B. (2015). Linguistic variation in research articles: When discipline tells only part of the story. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Register Studies, Edited by Bethany Gray & Jesse Egbert

Refereed Journal Articles and Reports

  1. Goulart, L., Gray, B., Staples, S., Black, A., Shelton, A., Biber, D., Egbert, J., & Wizner, S. (2020). Linguistic perspectives on register. Annual Review of Linguistics, 6, 435-455.
  2. Gray, B., Geluso, J., & Nguyen, P. (2019). The longitudinal development of grammatical complexity at the phrasal and clausal levels in spoken and written responses to the TOEFL iBT test. ETS Research Report No. RR-19-45. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. [49 pages]Staples, S., Egbert, J., Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2016). Academic writing development at the university level: phrasal and clausal complexity across level of study, discipline, and genre. Written Communication, 33(2), 149-183.
  3. Biber, D., Gray, B., & Staples, S. (2016). Predicting patterns of grammatical complexity across language exam task types and proficiency levels. Applied Linguistics, 37(5), 639-668. [Advance access available online October 2014.]
  4. Biber, D., Gray, B., & Staples, S. (2016). Contrasting the grammatical complexities of conversation and academic writing: Implications for EAP writing development and teaching. Language in Focus, 2(1), 1-18.
  5. Gray, B. (2013). More than discipline: Uncovering multi-dimensional patterns of variation in academic research articles. Corpora, 8(2), 153-181.
  6. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2013/2015). Lexical frames in academic prose and conversation. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 18(1), 109-135. Reprinted in S. Hoffmann, B. Fischer-Starcke, & A. Sand (eds.) (2015), Current Issues in Phraseology (pp. 109-134). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  7. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2013a). Being specific about historical change: The influence of sub-register. Journal of English Linguistics, 41(2), 104-134.
  8. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2013b). Discourse characteristics of writing and speaking task types on the TOEFL iBT Test: A lexico-grammatical analysis. TOEFL iBT Research Report (TOEFL iBT-19). 128 pages. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2011). Grammatical change in the noun phrase: The influence of written language use. English Language & Linguistics, 15(2), 223-250.
  9. Biber, D., Gray, B., & Poonpon, K. (2013). Pay attention to the phrasal structures: Going beyond T-units – A response to WeiWei Yang. TESOL Quarterly, 47(1), 192-201. TQ Forum Response.
  10. Biber, D., Gray, B., & Poonpon, K. (2011). Should we use characteristics of conversation to measure grammatical complexity in L2 writing development? TESOL Quarterly, 45(1), 5-35.
  11. Gray, B., & Cortes, V. (2010). Perception vs. evidence: An analysis of this and these in academic prose. English for Specific Purposes, 30(1), 31-43.
  12. Gray, B. (2010). On the use of demonstrative pronouns and determiners as cohesive devices: A focus on sentence-initial this/these in academic prose. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9, 167-183
  13. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2010). Challenging stereotypes about academic writing: Complexity, elaboration, explicitness. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9, 2-20.

Book Chapters

  1. Gray, B., Cotos, E., & Smith, J. (in press; in print March 2020). Combining rhetorical move analysis with multi-dimensional analysis: Research writing across disciplines. In U. Römer, V. Cortes, & E. Friginal (eds.), Advances in corpus-based research on academic writing (pp. 138-168). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  2. Gray, B. (2019). Tagging and counting linguistic features for multi-dimensional analysis. In T. Berber-Sardinha & M. Veirano (eds.), Multi-dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues. Continuum/Bloomsbury.
  3. Biber, D. & Gray, B. (2019). Are law reports an ‘agile’ or an ‘uptight’ register? Tracking patterns of historical change in the use of colloquial and complexity features. In T. Fanego & P. Rodriguez-Puente (eds.), Corpus-based research on variation in English legal discourse: Looking back and looking forward. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  4. Gray, B. & Biber, D. (2018). Academic writing as a locus of grammatical change: The development of phrasal complexity features. In R.J. Whitt (ed.), Diachronic Corpora, Genre, and Language Change (pp. 117-146). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  5. Gray, B. (2016). Lexical bundles.  In P. Baker & J. Egbert (eds.), Triangulating Methodological Approaches in Corpus Linguistic Research. [Advances in Corpus Linguistics series]. New York: Routledge.
  6. Biber, D., with Egbert, J., Gray, B., Oppliger, R., & Szmrecsanyi, B. (2016). Variationist versus text-linguistic approaches to grammatical change in English: Nominal modifiers of head nouns. In M. Kytö & P. Pahta (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics (pp. 351-375). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2015). Phraseology. In D. Biber & R. Reppen (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp. 125-145). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Gray, B. (2015). On the complexity of academic writing: Disciplinary variation and structural complexity. In V. Cortes & E. Csomay (eds.), Corpus-based Research in Applied Linguistics. In Honor of Douglas Biber (pp. 49-77). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  9. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2015). Stance markers. In K. Aijmer & C. Rühlemann (eds.), Corpus Pragmatics: A Handbook (pp. 219-248). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2013c). Nominalizing the verb phrase in academic science writing. In B. Aarts, J. Close, G. Leech & S. Wallis (eds.), The Verb Phrase in English: Investigating Recent Language Change with Corpora (pp. 99-132). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2013d). Multi-dimensional analyses of language variation. In J. Schlueter & M. Krug (eds.), Research Methods in Language Variation and Change (pp. 402-432). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2012). The competing demands of popularization vs. economy: Written language in the age of mass literacy. In T. Nevalainen & E. Traugott (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of English, (pp. 314-328). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2012a). Current conceptions of stance. In K. Hyland & C. Sancho Guinda (eds.), Stance and Voice in Written Academic Genres (pp. 15-33). London: Palgrave.
  14. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2012b). The emergence and evolution of the pattern N + of + V-ing in historical scientific texts. In I. Moskowich & B. Crespo (eds.), Astronomy ‘playne and simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900 (pp. 181-198). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  15. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2011a). The historical shift of scientific academic prose in English towards less explicit styles of expression: Writing without verbs. In V. Bathia, P. Sánchez, & P. Pérez-Paredes (eds.), Researching Specialized Language (pp. 11-24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  16. Biber, D., & Gray, B. (2011b). Is conversation more grammatically complex than academic writing? In M. Konopka, J. Kubczak, & U.H. Waßner (eds.), DLS Grammar and Corpora Proceedings.
  17. Biber, D., Gray, B., Honkapohja, A., & Pahta, P. (2011). Prepositional modifiers in early English medical prose: A study ON their historical development IN noun phrases. In P. Pahta & A. H. Jucker (eds.), Communicating Early English Manuscripts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  18. Gray, B., & Biber, D. (2011). Corpus approaches to the analysis of discourse. In K. Hyland & B. Paltridge (eds.), Companion to Discourse Analysis (pp. 138-152). London: Continuum.
  19. Gray, B., Biber, D., & Hiltunen, T.  (2011). The expression of stance in early (1665-1712) publications of the Philosophical Transactions and other contemporary medical prose: Innovations in a pioneering discourse. In I. Taavitsainen & P. Pahta (eds.), Medical Writing in Early Modern English (pp. 221-247). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.