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Bark and Ambrosia Beetle Fungi


My Old Homepages were taken down by the university in 2020. I am sorry for this loss of access, and I am trying to recreate some of this material on new pages, like this one. Please let me know ( if a link is broken or you have other problems accessing these publications.



Mayers C. G., T. C. Harrington, and P. H. W. Biedermann. 2021. Mycangia define the diverse ambrosia beetle–fungus symbioses. Pp. 105-142 In: Schultz TR, Peregrine PN, Gawne R, (eds), The Convergent Evolution of Agriculture in Humans and Insects. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Link to the book chapter  or you can download the chapter PDF

Harrington, T. C., J. C. Batzer, and D. L. McNew. 2021. Corticioid basidiomycetes associated with bark beetles, including seven new Entomocorticium species from North America and Cylindrobasidium ipidophilum, comb. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 114:561-579.   You can download the PDF: Harrington2021_Article_CorticioidBasidiomycetesAssoci.pdf

Mayers, C. G., T. C. Harrington, D. L. McNew, R. A. Roeper, P. H. W. Biedermann, H. Masuya, and C. C. Bateman. 2020. Four mycangial types and four genera of ambrosia fungi suggest a complex history of fungus-farming in the ambrosia beetle tribe Xyloterini. Mycologia 112:1104-1137.

Mayers, C. G., T. C. Harrington, H. Masuya, B.H. Jordal, D.L. McNew, H.-H. Shih, F. Roets, and G.J. Kietzka. 2020. Patterns of coevolution between ambrosia beetle mycangia and the Ceratocystidaceae, with five new fungal genera and seven new species. Persoonia 44:41-66. (pdf of manuscript)

Mayers, C. G., C. C. Bateman, and T. C. Harrington. 2018. New Meredithiella species from mycangia of Corthylus ambrosia beetles suggest genus-level coadaptation but not species-level coevolution. Mycologia 110:63-78. (pdf of manuscript)

Fraedrich, S. W., T. C. Harrington, Q. Huang, S. J. Zarnoch, J. L. Hanula, and G. S. Best. 2018. Brood production by Xyleborus glabratus in bolts from trees infected and uninfected with the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola. Forest Science (pdf of online manuscript).

Mayers, C. G., T. C. Harrington, and C. R. Ranger. 2017. First report of a sexual state in an ambrosia fungus: Ambrosiella cleistominuta sp. nov. associated with the ambrosia beetle Anisandrus maiche. Botany 95:503-512 (pdf of manuscript).

Wuest, C. E., T. C. Harrington, S. W. Fraedich, H. Y. Yun, and S. S. Lu. 2017. Genetic variation in native populations of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, in Taiwan and Japan and the introduced population in the USA. Plant Dis. 101:619-628. (pdf)

Fraedrich, S. W., T. C. Harrington, B. A. McDaniel, and G. S. Best. 2016. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on spicebush (Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume) in South Carolina. Plant Dis. 100:2330-2330. (link to paper)

Mayers, C. G., D. L. McNew, T. C. Harrington, R. A. Roeper, S. W. Fraedrich, P. H. W. Biedermann, L. A. Castrillo, and S. E. Reed. 2015. Three genera in the Ceratocystidaceae are the respective symbionts of three independent lineages of ambrosia beetles with large, complex mycangia. Fungal Biology (pdf of manuscript).Fraedrich, S. W., C. W. Johnson, R. D. Menard, T. C. Harrington, R. Olatinwo, and G. S. Best. 2015. First report of Xyleborus glabratus and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: the disease continues westward on sassafras. Florida Entomologist 98:1278-1280. (pdf of manuscript)

Fraedrich, S. W., T. C. Harrington, and G. S. Best. 2014. Xyleborus glabratus attacks and systemic colonization by Raffaelea lauricola associated with dieback of Cinnamomum camphora in the southeastern United States. Forest Pathology 45:60-70. (pdf of manuscript).

Harrington, T. C., D. McNew, C. Mayers, S.W. Fraedrich, and S. E. Reed. 2014. Ambrosiella roeperi sp. nov. is the mycangial symbiont of the granulate ambrosia beetle,Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Mycology (pdf of manuscript).

James, S. A., E. J. C. Barriga, P. P. Barahona, T. C. Harrington, C. F. Lee, C. J. Bond, and I. N. Roberts. 2014. Wickerhamomyces arborarius, sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species found in arboreal habitats on three different continents. Intern. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 64:1057-1061. (pdf of manuscript).

Harrington, T. C. 2013. Exotic pathogens or shifts in climate? Luarel wilt and bur oak blight. pp. 39-41 In: Proceedings, 24th USDA Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species. Pubication FHTET 13-01. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: Fort Collins, CO. 124 p. (pdf of manuscript).

Bates, C. A., S. W. Fraedrich, T. C. Harrington, R. S. Cameron, R. D. Menard, and G. S. Best. 2013. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on sassafras (Sassafras albidum) in Alabama. Plant Dis. 97:688

Harrington, T. C. , H. Y. Yun, S. S. Lu, H. Goto, D. N. Aghayeva, and S. W. Fraedrich. 2011. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia. Mycologia 103:1028-1036. (PDF)

Fraedrich, S.W., T. C. Harrington, C. A. Bates, J. Johnson, L. S. Reid, G. S. Best, T. D. Leininger, and T. S. Hawkins. 2011. Susceptibility to laurel wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, pondberry and pondspice. Plant Dis. 95:1056-1062. (PDF)

Riggins, J. J., S. W. Fraedrich, and T. C. Harrington. 2011. First report of laurel wilt caused by Raffaelea lauricola in sassafras in Mississippi. Plant Dis. 95:1479.

Kim, S., T. C. Harrington, J. Lee, and S. Seybold. 2011. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda in California. Mycologia 103:152-163. (PDF)

Harrington, T. C., and S. W. Fraedrich. 2010. Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Phytopathology 100:1118-1123. (PDF)

Harrington, T. C., D. N. Aghayeva, and S. W. Fraedrich. 2010. New combinations in Raffaelea, Ambrosiella, and Hyalorhinocladiella, and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratusMycotaxon 111:337-361. (PDF)

Mayfield, A. E, T. C. Harrington, S. Fraedrich, J. Hanula, and others. 2009. Recovery plan for laurel wilt on redbay. In: Plant Diseases that Threaten U.S. Agriculture. Prepared for the National Plant Disease Recovery System, USDA and the American Phytopathological Society. 27 pp. (pdf of report).

Fraedrich, S.W., Harrington, T.C., Rabaglia, R.J., Ulyshen, M.D., Mayfield A.E. III, Hanula, J.L, Eickwort, J.M. and Miller, D.R. 2008. A fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle causes a lethal wilt in redbay and other Lauraceae in the southeastern United States. Plant Disease 92: 215-224. (PDF)

Harrington, T.C., Fraedrich, S.W., and Aghayeva, D.N. 2008. Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the Lauraceae. Mycotaxon 104: 399-404. (PDF)

Fraedrich, S. W., T. C. Harrington, and R. J. Rabaglia. 2007. Laurel wilt: a new and devastating disease of redbay caused by a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomol. Soc. 52: 15-16. (pdf of manuscript)

Jacobi, W. R., Koski, R. D., Harrington, T. C., and Witcosky, J. J. 2007. Association of Ophiostoma novo-ulmiwith Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Scolytidae) in Colorado. Plant Dis. 91:245-247. (pdf of manuscript)

Harrington, T. C. 2005. Ecology and evolution of mycophagous bark beetles and their fungal partners. Pages 257-291 In: Insect-Fungal Associations. Ecology and Evolution. F. E. Vega and M. Blackwell, eds. Oxford University Press, New York. (pdf of manuscript) (or to purchase, you can go to Oxford Univ. Press). 

Thwaites, J.M., Farrell, R.L., Duncan, S.M., Reay, S.D., Blanchette, R.A., Hadar, E., Hadar, Y, Harrington, T.C. and McNew, D.M. 2005. Survey of potential sapstain fungi on Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 43:653-663. (pdf file of manuscript).

Zhou, X.D., Z. W. de Beer, T. C. Harrington, D. McNew, T. Kirisitis, M. J. Wingfield. 2004. Epitypification ofOphiostoma galeiforme and phylogeny of species in the O. galeiforme complex. Mycologia 96:1306-1315. (pdf file of manuscript).

Six, D. L., T. C. Harrington, J. Steimel, D. McNew, and T. D. Paine. 2003. Genetic relationships amongLeptographium terebrantis and the mycangial fungi of three western Dendroctonus bark beetles. Mycologia 95:781-792. (PDF)

Z. Wilhelm de Beer, Thomas C. Harrington, Hester F. Vismer, Brenda D. Wingfield & Michael J. Wingfield 2003. Phylogeny of the Ophiostoma stenoceras­Sporothrix schenckii complex. Mycologia 2003 95: 434-441. (PDF)

Harrington, T. C., N. V. Pashenova, D. L. McNew, J. Steimel, and M. Yu. Konstantinov. 2002. Species delimitation and host specialization of Ceratocystis laricicola and C. polonica to larch and spruce. Mycologia 86:418-422. (pdf file of manuscript).

Hsiau, P. T., and T. C. Harrington. 2003. Phylogenetics and adaptations of basidiomycetous fungi fed upon by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Symbiosis 34:111-131.(pdf of manuscript)

Harrington, T. C., D. M. McNew, J. Steimel, D. Hofstra, and R. Farrell. 2001. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Ophiostoma piceae complex and the Dutch elm disease fungi. Mycologia 93:110-135. download pdf

Tabata, M., Harrington, T. C., Chen, W., and Y. Abe. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of species in the generaAmylostereum and Echinodontium. Mycoscience 41:585-593. download pdf

Rojas, M. G., J. A. Morales-Ramos, and T. C. Harrington. 1999. Association between Hpothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Fusarium solani (Moniliales: Tuberculariaceae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 92:98-100. (PDF)

Jacobs, K., M. J. Wingfield, P. W. Crous, and T. C. Harrington. 1998. Leptographium engelmannii, a synonym of L. abietinum, and description of L. hughesii sp. nov. Can. J. Bot.76:1660-1667. (PDF)

Farrell, R. L., E. Hadar, S. J. Kay, R. A. Blanchette, and T. C. Harrington. 1998. Survey of sapstain organisms in New Zealand and albino anti-sapstain fungi. pp. 57-62 In: Biology and Prevention of Sapstain, Publ. 7273, Forest Products Society, Madison, Wisc.

Farrell, R. L., S. M. Duncan, A. P. Ram, S. J. Kay, E. Hadar, Y. Hadar, R. A. Blanchette, T. C. Harrington, and D. McNew. 1997. Causes of sapstain in New Zealand. pp. 25-29 in: B. Kreber, ed. Strategies for Improving Protection of Logs and Lumber. New Zealand For. Res. Instit. Bull. No. 204.

Witthuhn, R. C., B. D. Wingfield, M. J. Wingfield, T. C. Harrington. 1997. Comparision of 3 varieties ofLeptographium wageneri using random amplified polymorphic DNA. So. Afr. J. Bot. 63:198-200.

Hsiau, P. T. W. and T. C. Harrington. 1997. Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi sp. nov., a mycangial fungus fromDendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Mycologia 89:661-669. download pdf

Paine, T. D., K. F. Raffa, and T. C. Harrington. 1997. Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and live host conifers. Annual Rev. Entomol. 42:179-206. (PDF)

Harrington, T. C., and M. J. Wingfield. 1997. Other Leptographium species associated with conifer roots. In: E. M. Hansen and K. J. Lewis, eds. Compendium of Conifer Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. p. 8-11.

Wingfield, M. J., T. C. Harrington, and P. W. Crous. 1994. Three new Leptographium species associated with conifer roots in the United States. Can. J. Bot. 72:227-238.

Harrington, T. C. 1993. Diseases of conifers caused by Ophiostoma and Leptographium. pp. 161-172 in: M. J. Wingfield, K. A. Seifert and J. F. Webber, eds. Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma, Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathogenicity. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Harrington, T. C. 1993. Biology and taxonomy of fungi associated with bark beetles. pp. 37-58 in: T. D. Schowalter and G. M. Filip, eds. Beetle-Pathogen Interactions in Conifer Forests. Academic Press.

Zambino, P. J., and T. C. Harrington. 1992. Correspondence of isozyme characterization with morphology in the asexual genus Leptographium and its taxonomic implications. Mycologia 84:12-25. download pdf

Harrington, T. C. 1992. Leptographium. pp. 129-133 in: L. L. Singleton, J. D. Mihail, and C. M. Rush, eds.Methods for Research on Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

Zambino, P. J., and T. C. Harrington. 1990. Heterokaryosis and vegetative compatibility in Leptographium wageneri. Phytopathology 80:1460-1469. download pdf

Harrington, T. C., and P. J. Zambino. 1990. Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus, not Ceratocystis minor var. barrasii, is the mycangial fungus of the southern pine beetle. Mycotaxon 38:103-115.

Kaneko, Shigeru, and T. C. Harrington. 1990. Leptographium truncatum isolated from Japanese red and black pines. Rep. Tottori Mycol. Instit. 28:171-174.

Zambino, P. J., and T. C. Harrington. 1989. Isozyme variation within and among host-specialized varieties ofLeptographium wageneri. Mycologia 81:122-133. download pdf

Harrington, T. C., and F. W. Cobb, Jr., editors. 1988. Leptographium Root Diseases on Conifers. APS Press, St. Paul, Minn. 149 pp. (now out of print).

Harrington, T. C. 1988. Leptographium species, their distribution, hosts, and insect vectors. pp. 1-39 in: T. C. Harrington and F. W. Cobb, Jr., eds. Leptographium Root Diseases on Conifers. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

Harrington, T. C., and F. W. Cobb, Jr. 1987. Leptographium wageneri var. pseudotsugae var. nov., cause of black stain root disease on Douglas-fir. Mycotaxon 30:501-507.

Harrington, T. C. 1987. New combinations in Ophiostoma of Ceratocystis species with Leptographiumanamorphs. Mycotaxon 28:39-43.

Harrington, T. C., F. W. Cobb, and J. Lownsbery. 1985. Activity of Hylastes nigrinus, a vector of Verticicladiella wageneri, in thinned stands of Douglas-fir. Can. J. For. Res. 15:519-523.

Harrington, T. C., and F. W. Cobb, Jr. 1984. Host specialization of three morphological variants ofVerticicladiella wageneri. Phytopathology 74:286-290.

Harrington, T. C., and F. W. Cobb, Jr. 1983. Pathogenicity of Leptographium and Verticicladiella spp. isolated from roots of western North American conifers. Phytopathology 73:596-599. download pdf

Harrington, T. C, C. Reinhart, D. A. Thornburgh, and F. W. Cobb, Jr. 1983. Association of black stain root disease with precommercial thinning of Douglas-fir. Forest Sci. 29:12-14.

Harrington, T. C., M. M. Furniss, and C. G. Shaw. 1981. Dissemination of hymenomycetes by Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Phytopathology 71:551-554.

Harrington, T. C. 1981. Cycloheximide sensitivity as a taxonomic character in Ceratocystis. Mycologia 73:1123-1129. download pdf

Harrington, T. C. 1980. Release of airborne basidiospores from the pouch fungus, Cryptoporus volvatus.Mycologia 72:926-936. download pdf

Harrington, T. C., R. A. Blanchette, and C. G. Shaw. 1980. In vitro chlamydospore formation by Cryptoporus volvatus. Mycologia 72:1026-1030.